While all of the women were conscious of the fact that being a woman sports fan had negatively impacted how they were perceived, very few challenged the root of that exclusion: the ways in which sports fandom was gendered masculine. Most did not articulate narratives of exclusion as sports fans because of their gender. When this exclusion (perhaps by another name) was acknowledged, their approach to negotiating that exclusion was largely through the lens of individualism; it is their own individual responsibility to either not let sexism in sports fan communities bother them, or to better conform to those communities, rather than advocate for the elimination of masculinist discourse from sports fan communities.

Esmonde, K., Cooky, C., & Andrews, D. L. (2015). “It’s supposed to be about the love of the game, not the love of Aaron Rodgers’ eyes”: Challenging the exclusions of women’s sports fans. Sociology of Sport Journal, 32(1), 22-48.

Research on sports fandom ends up in all sorts of non-Fan Studies publications, so it can be a little tricky to hunt down. This paper looks at the experiences of women sports fans in what are ultimately very masculine spaces, and examines how they negotiate sexism, their own femininity, and their identity as sports fans.

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