Fan groups that translate anime and manga have had a strong influence on the evolution of commercial translation strategies for the medium, and anime clubs and conventions often develop symbiotic ties with industry retailers. As inferred by the terms “group” and “club,” manga and anime consumption is often viewed as a social activity. “Scanlations” (fan-made translations of manga) and “fansubs” (fan-made subtitled anime), which are produced for and distributed among fans, also often entail group effort. This direct involvement by fans in the introduction of the source material into the target culture allows them to be not only consumers but also distributors and producers. Furthermore, commercially translated manga tend to be consumed as overtly foreignized texts, with their readers well aware that they are reading translations, and this encourages the fanbase to appropriate the texts as more than foreign import products, establishing them as cultural possessions in the minds of the fanbase at large.
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