Over the course of three seasons, Sleepy Hollow’s dedicated fan base used social media to launch an intersectional critique and urge change in the industry. Their efforts involved writing fan fiction, calling out stereotypical representations, and boycotting the show. While these initial tactics inadvertently benefited media industries by helping promote the show and providing free market research, the fandom collectively changed its approach after season 3 and set its sights on boycotting the series. In protest, fans no longer produced a stream of content that could be mined and appropriated by the network. (…) While the potential for social TV to alter institutional power dynamics remains to be seen, Sleepy Hollow fans’ evolving strategies show how organized actions can subvert institutional efforts to monetize fan engagement.

Arcy, J., & Johnson, Z. (2017). Intersectional critique and social media activism in “Sleepy Hollow” fandom. Transformative Works and Cultures, 26
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