However, not everything is easily conducive to the positivist critique of homonationalism and ablenationalism. Normative aspects of neoliberal dictates are also often replicated within the domain of fan fiction. Fan narratives often result in the reproduction of the normative family structure by portraying Steve and Bucky in the role of caregivers by adopting a pseudo-family in the form of other wayward children similarly excluded by the ableist heternormative State. More often than not, these adoptive families include individuals similarly marginalized by the dominant models of race, sexuality and gender. In this context, the family narrative is further complicated. Is such fan fiction subversive by allowing for the existence of an alternative family structure which challenges the heternormative paradigms of the dominant model, or does it add to the normativity of the same model by adhering to the mandates of homonormativity? (…) Perhaps the answer lies neither in the normativist paradigm, nor in the complete annihilation of the hegemonic model, but in the questioning and engaging with the politics of such a narrative.
Garg, D. (2018). (Un)Sanctoined Bodies: The State-Sexuality-Disability Nexus in Captain America Slash Fan Fiction. In Spacey, A. (Ed.). (2018). The Darker Side of Slash Fan Fiction: Essays on Power, Consent and the Body. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.