Serialized stories encourage discussion and analysis. There is plenty of evidence of Victorian “reading groups,” where friends and families would come together to read aloud the latest installments of a favorite tale, and of book exchanges, where a single pamphlet

Greater competition (between dōjinshi creators in the 1980s) gradually fostered rising standards of quality, which in turn attracted more circles and buyers. Higher sales shrank production costs and boosted profits, which could then be reinvested in the dōjinshi themselves. Small

unjapanologist: meeedeee: angstbotfic: “In 1988, it was estimated that there were 300 publications that enabled fans to explore aspects of television series, 120 of them centered on Star Trek, a number that no doubt underestimates the production of fan literature