The separation between fandom as a subcultural social practice and the mainstreaming of fan culture wherein “fannish values and reading practices spread across the entire viewing public” in ways supported by media corporations is noteworthy (Jenkins 2006). In the mainstreaming

The defining example of fan activism to renew a show was the letter-writing campaign to pressure NBC into renewing Star Trek in the 1960s, which provided a sort of model for future similar campaigns (Jenkins 2011). Since then, fans have

In this sense, therefore, the informal practices of fan culture appear uniquely compatible with a free and open culture in which participation in the processes of creation is unhindered by institutional or legal means. More recent research into fan practice—particularly

Vidding is a form of grassroots filmmaking in which clips from television shows and movies are set to music. The result is called a vid or a songvid. Unlike professional MTV-style music videos, in which footage is created to promote