Shops like the Who Shop and Alien Entertainment use their authority as merchants to help shape the fandom, and to reinforce the feelings of alterity within fan subcultural communities through discourses of historicity and activity. Importantly, both discourses are reflective

The basic issue with monetizing fan fiction is that organic, noncommercial communities that create transformative remixes cannot be moved into the commercial sector without being fundamentally altered and diminished. The market changes what it swallows. Tushnet, Rebecca. “All of This

The separation between fandom as a subcultural social practice and the mainstreaming of fan culture wherein “fannish values and reading practices spread across the entire viewing public” in ways supported by media corporations is noteworthy (Jenkins 2006). In the mainstreaming