(Fan) cultures have not traditionally work like media industries, since they have their own production dynamics, being much more a “shadow cultural economy” (Fiske, 1992); the constant search for alternative models of creation and circulation, as well as practices between consumerism and resistance are traits and conditions in the history of fan cultures (Hills, 2002).

Fiske, J (1992) The cultural economy of fandom= L.A. Lewis (ed.): The adoring audience: fan culture and popular media, new york: routledge, 30-49. Hills, M. (2002) Fan cultures, London and New York: ROutledge. Daros, O (2021) Have fan forums been swallowed by social media companies?=academia letters https://doi.org/10.20935/AL1683

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