(Fan) cultures have not traditionally work like media industries, since they have their own production dynamics, being much more a “shadow cultural economy” (Fiske, 1992); the constant search for alternative models of creation and circulation, as well as practices between consumerism and resistance are traits and conditions in the history of fan cultures (Hills, 2002).Fiske, J (1992) The cultural economy of fandom= L.A. Lewis (ed.): The adoring audience: fan culture and popular media, new york: routledge, 30-49. Hills, M. (2002) Fan cultures, London and New York: ROutledge. Daros, O (2021) Have fan forums been swallowed by social media companies?=academia letters https://doi.org/10.20935/AL1683
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