Scholars within fan studies have generally maintained, with varying degrees of insistence, that fan texts are collaborative, but our understanding of the mechanics of fan collaboration, especially in vidding, is still incomplete. An ecological model of composition lets us have

Calling the practice of modding more empowering or resistive than other fannish practices is problematic because, use of technology aside, modding is not significantly different than the writing of fan fiction or the creation of vids. Modding is, essentially, the practice of taking

In this way, machinima, at its core, is not markedly different than vids. What truly differentiates machinima from vids are how each genre is perceived, evaluated and categorized within mainstream culture and its analysis within the academic community. This difference