Women’s childcare responsibilities not only restrict their attendance at sport, but when children are taken along in family units to sport events, women continue to be marginalized by the expectation that they will perform the role of primary carer in these public settings.
Gosling, V. K. (2007). Girls allowed?: the marginalization of female sport fans. In Gray, J. A., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (Eds.). Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world. NYU Press.
This chapter provides a really handy overview of academic research and literature up to 2007 on women sports fans and the marginalisation they experience. It’s a great first step for anyone looking to understand the issues, with lots of useful references to other research.