Being a fan means doing life in a certain way. It means being passionate. It means being playful. It means being creative and engaged. It means obsession and flailing. All of these perceived affordances of fandom are tied to norms,

transformativeworksandcultures: TWC #23: Sherlock Holmes, Fandom, Sherlockiana, and the Great Game (special issue, edited by Roberta Pearson and Betsy Rosenblatt) Editorial Roberta Pearson,Betsy Rosenblatt “In all my experience I cannot recall any more singular and interesting study” Theory Ann McClellan,

[QUOTE] From Drew Emanuel Berkowitz, Framing the Future of Fanfiction: How The New York Times’ Portrayal of a Youth Media Subculture Influences Beliefs about Media Literacy Education, p203

Many (New York Times articles about fan fiction) described fanfiction authors as dedicated (Nussbaum 2003), but the specific language used to frame their “zealous” (Stelter 2008, 5) or “marginal obsessive” (Manly 2006, 1) behavior varied. The normalcy of fanfiction appeared